Energy Consumption by Country

 

 Afghanistan  France  Israel   New Zealand  Saudi Arabia
 Brazil  Haiti  Japan  Nicaragua  Singapore
 Canada  India  Mexico  Nigeria  South Africa

 

 

Afghanistan

Afghanistan is a country located in Southwest Asia with a population of 24.8 million people, a GDP of $19.3 billion and a per capita of $800. Afghanistan is a poor country who relies heavily on their agriculture business for revenue. Natural gas reserves for Afghanistan are 5 trillion cubic feet (tcf). Gas production was 220 million cubic ft/day in the 1980's, but has since fallen to 19 million cubic ft/day, all of which are used domestically.
Afghanistan has 95 million barrels in oil reserves.The electricity capacity is 494,000kW with an actual production of 655 million kWh. The consumption per capita is 37 kWh. The industrial production of Afghanistan is distributed as follows: gas 27%, coal 22%, food 64%, and machine construction and metallurgy 19%.

Bibliography
The United States Energy Information Administration web site at:
www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs

 



Brazil

Brazil is the largest country in South America. It has a population of 162.1 million. Brazil is home to fast growing oil, natural gas, and electricity markets. The country produces large amounts of hydroelectric power and is quickly moving towards self- sufficiency in oil production. Brazil has a large steel industry so it imports large amounts of coal. Brazil consumed a total of 6.7621 quads (quadrillion Btu) of energy in 1995. This is about (4.17*10^-8) quads per person. Brazil produced a total of 4.5672 quads in 1995.
There is 4.8 billion barrels of proven oil reserves in Brazil. The country produces about 1 million barrels of oil per day and consumes about 1.7 million barrels per day. There is 5.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas reserves. Brazil produced 200 billion cubic feet of natural gas in 1996 and consumed 205 billion cubic feet. Even though natural gas only accounts for 3 % of the total energy consumption, this percent is expected to increase. Changes have made that allow the import of natural gas from neighboring countries. The gas consumption in Brazil is expected to double and should be 10% to 12% of total energy consumption by 2010. A 1, 432 mile long gas pipe line connecting southern Brazil with Bolivia is being completed.
There are 3.1 billion short tons of coal reserves in Brazil. The coal production in 1996 was 4.7 million short tons and the consumption was 27.3 million short tons. The domestic coal in Brazil has a high ash content and a low caloric value. Due to the lack of quality of the coal, Brazil imports a large amount of coal from the United States and Australia. Brazil's net electricity generation in 1996 was 285.7 billion kilowatt-hours and the consumption of net electricity was 303 billion kilowatt-hours. The main source of the electrical energy comes from hydro-electric power, which provides 95% of the countries electrical power. Along with Paraguay, Brazil is the worlds largest hydro-complex.

Energy Information Administration, http://www.eia.doe.gov/
Annual Energy review and the international energy annual,
http://www.eia.doe.gov/bookshelf.html

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Brazil

Population: The country of Brazil is located in Eastern South America. In 1998 it's estimated population is 162.1 people, with a growth rate of 1.4%.
Energy usage/production: In 1998 Brazil accounted for 1.9% of the total world energy usage, or 7.24 QBtu, which comes out to about 45.9 million Btu per person. 95% of their 285.7 billion kWh electricity production for 1998 was in the form of hydroelectric power (or .926 QBtu). The country consumed 303 billion kWh in that period of time. The country produces 1 million barrels of oil per day (bbl/d), yet uses 1.7 million bbl/d, therefore they import 700 thousand bbl/d (all this comes to a total energy usage of 3.6 QBtu of oil per year). In 1996 Brazil produced 4.7 million short tons of coal, and consumed 27.3 million short tons, importing 22.6 million short tons, a large percent of their total. Also in 1996 Brazil used 205 billion cubic feet of natural gas (or 0.212 QBtu), importing only 5 billion cubic feet. In summary Brazil uses 3.60 QBtu of oil, 0.212 QBtu of natural gas, .926 QBtu of hydroelectric power, .726 QBtu of coal, and 1.78 QBtu of other sources.
Estimated energy reserves: In 1998 it was estimated that Brazil had 4.8 billion barrels of proven oil reserves (or 27.8 QBtu), 5.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas reserves (or 5.80 QBtu), 3.1 billion short tons of coal reserves (or 8.25 QBtu), and a hydroelectric generation capacity of .926 QBtu ad infinitum. Ignoring hydroelectric generation of power Brazil can last for 7 years of current consumption of oil, 27 years on it's supply of natural gas, and 11 years on it's supply of coal.

Bib:
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/brazil.html
Ristinen, Robert A., Jack J Karaushaar, Energy and the Environment, Wiley, New York, 1999.

Links:
Brazil


Canada


A recent population estimate for Canada is 29.96 million in 1996. The annual total energy use is estimated at 12.2 quadrillion Btu, thus the per capita energy use of Canada is 407,209,612.8 Btu/person. Canada uses energy at a high rate per person. This high rate of energy consumption is partly due to the large quantities needed to provide heat during severe winters, traveling between distant regions of the country and also the processing of natural resources. Canada is the world's largest producer of energy, after the United States, Russia, China, and Saudi Arabia. As of 1996, natural gas was 34.6% of Canada's primary energy production, followed by petroleum (27.6%), electricity (26.8% if which 21.0% from hydroelectricity, 5.8% from nuclear and 0.01% from other), and coal (11.0%). Energy production is essential to Canada's economy. Energy production will contribute about 8% of Canada's GDP in 1998 which is the country's second largest sector after manufacturing. Energy production is also about 10% of the country's total merchandise exports. The United States is Canada's major trade market for energy products and accounts for 91% of all Canadian energy exports, (which includes all of Canada's oil, natural gas, and electricity exports). Canada's coal is exported to the Far East.
Currently in 1998, there are two major issues with concern to Canada's energy industry. First, the continued low price of oil affects the Canadian energy companies because it causes lower profit margins and reduced capital expenditures. Thus, Canadian energy sectors profits totaled $1.5 billion in the second quarter of 2998, the lowest in 4 years and a decline of about 50% from 1996. The second major issue in regards to Canada's energy industry is the increased merger activity in 1998. The proposed Exxon-Mobil merger is a major player in 2 of Canada's largest energy projects, oil sands in Northern Alberta and oil projects off the East Coast.
Canada's oil production as of 1998 is 2.68-million bbl/dd and oil consumption is 1.84 million bbl/d. Canada's net oil exports is 0.92 million bbl/dd. Canadian oil industry has made a huge recovery from several years of low oil prices. Canadian crude oil has risen from 1.47 million barrels per day in 1984 to 1.95 million barrels per day in 1998. The increase in oil production is due to new exploration ideas (seismic techniques and horizontal drilling), new production technology (drill bits, drill rigs), improved availability of equipment, increased demand from U.S. refineries, and successes in cutting costs and down sizing. The increased Canadian oil output consists of mostly heavy oil and synthetic oil. The Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin is Canada's largest source of crude oil but its reserves are being depleted. The oil industry is one of Canada's largest industries, in 1997; $16 billion was spent on oil and gas drilling. Although mostly all Canadian oil is produced in western Canada, the oil is consumed in central Canada and in the U.S, thus there is an extensive system of pipelines connecting oil producing and consuming locations. As of 1998, Canada's crude oil refinery capacity is 1.85 million bbl/dd. Canada has 22 refineries in total.
Canada currently produces almost 5.9 Tcf of natural gas per year which ranks it as the world's third largest gas producer and the second largest gas exporter. Canadian consumption of natural gas, 3.0Tcf, is expected to rise by 53% by 2020. Canada has about 65Tcf of proven natural gas reserves. Canada's National Energy Board predicts that there is up to 10.2 Tcf of undiscovered natural gas in northwestern territories.
Canada is a large coal producer and consumer, with an output tcf 87 million tons(mmst) and a consumption of about 61mmst. Canada's estimated net coal exports were 25mmst in 1996, which ranks it fourth in the world. Bituminous makes up about half of Canada's coal output, sub-bituminous with one third and lignite for the rest. Coal is 10% of Canada's total energy. The future outlook for Canadian coal is positive because of large reserves of 9.5 billion short tons as of 1993.
Canada generated 549 terawatthours of electricity in 1996, with net exports of 38 Twh. Canada's energy consumption in 1996 was 473 Twh. Overall, 64% of Canada's electricity in 1996 was generated by hydroelectric plants, 19% by coal, 16% by nuclear, and 1% by oil, gas and other. Canada generated 84.1billion kWh of electricity form nuclear power in 1997, with nuclear accounting for 5.8% of total electricity production. Canada has 14 operating nuclear reactors. Canada has a large amount of hydroelectric resources. In March of 1998, plans were made for a 3,000 MW plant on the Churchill River. In addition to hydroelectric power, Canada took a big challenge with renewable energy by constructing the largest wind power generation complex in Canada, called Le Nordais. Le Nordais has 133 third-generation NEG-Micon turbines. There are also wind farms in western Alberta.
Other "newer" energies used in Canada include using the tides of the Bay of Fundy to generate electricity, solar energy, the burning of wood and peat, and the use of windmills to generate electricity.
References-
International Energy Annual
Washington, D.C.: U.S.Dept. Of Energy, Energy Information Administration
International petroleum encyclopedia
Tulsa, Okla., PennWell;1968-

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Canada:
In Canada, it is estimated that the population is of about 25,309,331 people. It is also estimated that the population rate is of 0% to 99% and this doubles every 71 years or more. The breakdown of Canada's energies are natural gas (18.3%), natural liquids (9.3%), crude oil (67.4%) and coal (5%). About 60.500 millions of short tons of coal are produced followed by 8.7 million barrels of crude oil. The major international Natural Gas Reserves as of 1995 in Canada was estimated to be 67 tcf (trillion cubic feet). Canada's renewable energies are hydroelectric, wind energy and solar energy. Hydroelectric energy accounts for 313,159 gigawatt hours, followed by 11 gigawatt hours of wind energy and .5 gigawatt hours of solar energy as of the year 1988.

Sources:
Lean, Geoffrey The Atlas of the Environment, Prentice Hall Press, 1990 New York.
Allen J.C The National Atlas of Canada, The Macmillan Company of Canada
Limited, Toronto, 1974.
Ristinen, Robert A. Energy and the Environment, John Wiley &Sons, Inc.,
New York, 1999.
Kurian, George T., The Atlas of the Third World, Christos Moschovitis &
Associates, inc., 1992 New York.



France

Although France is not richly endowed in mineral resources, it manages to cover almost half of the nations total electricity needs thanks to nuclear electricity. Electricity production has tripled since 1970. In 1995, it covered almost 40% of the country's total energy needs and totaled 771 billion TWh. Nuclear electricity accounts for 75% of the nation's total electricity production, as opposed to 25% 20 years ago. The nuclear program ranks second in the world, only behind the U.S. Fifty-seven reactors are spread around 21 sites, mainly in the Rhone and the Loire and on the coast. The EDF, Electricite de France, has become the largest electric company in the world. Hydroelectric power, too plays a big role in the electricity consumption in France. In 1995, hydroelectricity represented 16% of the nation's electrical output. Most of this hydroelectric power is supplied by plants along the Rhine and Rhone rivers and in the mountain regions of the Alps, the Pyrenees, and the Massif Central.
Oil, too, accounts for slightly over 40% of France's total energy consumption. Two of the most powerful oil companies are in France: the Compagnie francois des petroles (CFP Total), and Elf. These two companies exploit extensive oil fields throughout the world and play an extensive role in all areas of the petroleum sector in France.
Natural gas accounts for 13% of the nation's energy consumption. It has greatly increased since 1960, when it accounted for 3.5% The GDF, or Gaz de France has a monopoly on the purchase, transportation, storage, and distribution of gas. Because there are many uses and it is non-polluting, natural gas is likely to increase in importance over the next few years because it is a relatively inexpensive form of fuel to produce, and the country already has an extensive network of pipelines in place. Although natural gas reserves are beginning to run out, especially in the southwest part of the country in Lacq, they are being replaced with imports from Russia, Algeria, the Netherlands, and
Norway.
Coal only accounts for 6% of the France's total energy use. The national production of coal is 8.4 million metric tons (Mt), which has dropped significantly since 1958 when it was 60Mt. More than two-thirds of coal is imported from the United States, Australia, and South Africa.
New sources of energy only account for 2% of the nation's total energy consumption. After solar and geothermal energy, ethanol may have an important future as a fuel thanks to European Union aid to absorb beet root and grain surpluses.
In 1995, the population of France was 58, 027, 300.

Sources
http://www.france.diplomatie.fr/france/eco/secteurs.gb.html

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France

As of 1998, France's total population numbered 38.4 million. France has little or no fossil fuels and depends on 57 nuclear reactors for its primary energy source. Nuclear energy along with oil are by far, the most dominant sources, supplying 31.9% and 40.4% of the total consumed energy respectively, followed by natural gas (13.6%); coal (6.6%); hydro-electric power (5.6%); and renewable sources (1.8%). Fossil fuel consumption is 60.7% of the total energy use. The consumption by source has deeply changed since 1973 when fossil fuels accounted for 81.6% of the total energy use (oil 69.1 %; coal 15.2% and gas 7.3%) and nuclear plus hydro-electric power for only 7.3%. We have discussed the reasons for this shift which include environmental impact, cost, and depleted resources?

Online. Netscape. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.htm


Haiti

Population: There are 7.34 million people in the Republic of Haiti. The country's annual energy usage is extremely low, only .0226. That amounts to only 3 million Btu per capita annually.

Energy usage/production: Haiti does not produce it's own coal, oil, or natural gas, since it has no reserves of these fuels. It imports 6.33 thousand bbl/d of oil, or .0134 QBtu per year. It's coal and natural gas imports are virtually non-existant. Haiti generates .0017 QBtu annually from hydroelectric power, and generates another .00775 QBtu annually through thermal generation. Very little data is available on energy usage in Haiti, therefore there are no further estimates.

Bib:
http://www.eia.doe.gov
Ristinen, Robert A., Jack J Karaushaar, Energy and the Environment, Wiley, New York, 1999.

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Haiti is a country the US is very familiar with. It is one that all children of this generation are taught about and all baby boomers remember with slight fear. Haiti is run by a man who the US has tried to do away with many times and has still failed. Out of all of my countries this is the poorest country by a lot. Haiti is considered more of a third world country than a regular one. It relies on older traditions and less technology. It has a population of 7,633,000 people. For the area it fairly densely populated much like Singapore but the housing and food situation is much worse than Singapore. The total energy consumption is very very small only 0.0147 quadrillions no even a particle of Singapore's.
The condition that most of the population is in is very sad, but the fact that they can somewhat survive with little or no fossil fuels is amazing. Whatever Haiti uses is imported however small it is, there is still no natural resources and if there was the technology isn't there to refine or extract etc. The two types of electricity they have are hydroelectric and thermal both are extremely low numbers for capacity and generation which is 0.070 kilowatts and 0.163 billion kilow watts per hour for Hydroelectric energy. For Thermal electricity it is 0.083 million kilowatts and 0.227 billion kilowatts per hour respectively. The total consumption of electricity is 0.390 billion kilowatts per hour. There is no natural gas or coal supply data because neither is used or if it is it is so minute as to not be necessary for calculation. For oil there is only a small amount imported and all of it is consumed it is 6.32 thousand of bbl/day.
Haiti doesn't have any renewable sources. Much like Singapore but worse because it doesn't refine anything even. There is no technology there, most things are powered by human and animal which is somewhat renewable if people keep regenerating as well as the animals at the same rate. Sadly like most third world countries (especially since this is communistic) they have a lack of birth control so
the humans are overly regenerating. There is no information on the animal labor although I think it would be extremely interesting to find out about that and see how energy of the animals compares with that of oil, coal, etc.

Sources:
World Book Encyclopedia volume H
www.eia.doe.gov
www.haitiglobalvillage.com
www.cam.org/~interso/haiti

Links:
Haiti
WORLD ENERGY Database for the International Energy
Republic of Haiti

 


India

India is a very large Asian nation with a population of 984 million, which makes it the second most populous country in the world. The country consumes a total of 12 Quadrillion Btu annually. The per capita energy use amounts to about 12 million Btu.
Fossil fuels are the main energy source in India. The most widely consumed fossil fuel is coal, of which the nation has rich supplies. Nearly all of the 321 million short tons (Mmst) of coal that are consumed annually are produced domestically. Oil is another huge source of energy for the people of India. Around 1.8 million barrels of oil are consumed every day in India, although more than half of it is imported. The annual natural gas consumption is 0.7 trillion cubic feet. All of this is produced domestically due to India's underdeveloped pipeline system. India's annual electricity consumption is 405 billion Kilowatt hours.
This electrical energy is derived from thermal (80%), hydroelectric (18%), and nuclear (2%) sources. The richest supply of energy for India unquestionably lies in coal. With 77.1 billion short tons (Bmst) in proven reserves, the nation can rely on energy from coal for hundreds of years. The only problem is the large amounts of pollution caused by coal, which may force the world community to limit or ban its production in the future. India's reserves of oil, 5.0 billion barrels, and natural gas, 17.4 trillion cubic feet, will be exhausted in the next 20 to 30 years at the current rate of
production.

SOURCES

1. The 1998 report of the United States Energy Information
Administration. All data is from 1996.
2. U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy's International
section's 1997 India report.


Israel

A recent population for Israel in 1996 was 5.70 million and the annual total energy use was 0.64 quadrillion Btu. Thus the per capita energy use is 112,280,701 Btu/person. Although Israel does not produce serious amounts of energy, it is located strategically for regional energy transit. Israel depends almost all on imports to meet its energy needs because it has practically no oil, gas, or coal reserve of its own. Israel imports around 20% of its oil supply from Egypt. Israel has attempted to utilize alternatives like solar and wind energy.
The settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict could affect Middle East oil flows significantly but Israel's geographic location between the Arabian Peninsula and the Mediterranean Sea allows for an alternative oil export route for Persian Gulf oil to the west. Although oil exploration in Israel has not been successful, drilling is being experimented with. In 1998, the Jerusalem Post said that Israeli oil companies were exploring oil in waters offshore Israel's coast. In early 1997, a contract for the construction of a $1.2 billion joint Egyptian-Israeli oil refinery was made. The refinery is expected to produce 100,000 barrels/day of unleaded gasoline. Israel's proven oil reserves are 4.0 million barrels. Its oil production rate is less than 1,000-barrels/day and oil consumption is 215,000 bbl/d. Israel's net oil import is 214,000 bbl/d and the crude oil refining capacity is 220,000 bbl/d.
Israel has 11 billion cubic feet in natural gas reserves and the natural gas consumption rate is 0.7 tcf. Israel mainly imports gas form other countries. For example, Israel and Egypt are discussing a "peace pipeline" to transport large amounts of Egyptian natural gas across the Sinai Peninsula directly to Israel. In December 1995, Israel's Paz Oil Company signed an agreement with Amoco to gain opportunities to enhance Israel's gas production. Under this agreement, Amoco would help in creating transmission, storage, and distribution facilities for gas.
Israel meets almost ¼ of its energy demand needs form coal (mostly for electric power generation). Israel has a coal consumption rate of 9.4 million short tons, all of which is imported, half from South Africa, and the rest from Columbia, the United States and Indonesia. Growth in coal demand and imports is caused by fast growth in electricity demand. Israel coal imports should rise to around 12 mmst per year when Israel's fourth coal-fired power plant is completed in 2000.
Currently, Israel has about 7.9 gigawatts of electric generating capacity, with 70% by coal-fired plants and 25% by fuel-fired units. Israel's electricity generation in 1996 was 28 billion kilowatthrs. Israel's electric power demand has grown at an 8% annual rate in recent years because of the fast economic growth and rise in immigration. Besides, coal and oil, sources of electric generating capacity include natural gas supplies from Egypt and the Persian Gulf region. Natural gas would benefit the environment and reduce electric generation costs. Israel is also looking to its own resources, such as shale oil from Nahal Zin in the Dead Sea region, in addition to renewables, like solar power (solar thermal plant), and the use of wind (wind farms).

References-
International Energy Annual
Washington, D.C.:U.S.Dept of Energy, Energy Information Administration
International petroleum encyclopedia
Tulsa, Okla., PennWell;1968-

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Israel is a country that is fairly new in that it is less than 100 years old. This is unlike most countries. It is a newer country yet it still has a large population 5,883,00,0. Most of those who populate it are of the Jewish religion and speak Hebrew. For so many people it is more than a little surprising at the amount of total energy consumption for Israel, 0.64 quadrillion Btu.

Israel doesn't produce that much off only about 1,000 bbl/day yet is consumes about 215,000 bbl/day, which means it imports about 214,000 bbl/day. It does have a crude oil refining capacity of about 220,000 bbl/day which isn't very high compared to consumption. Israel uses about 9.4 million short tons of coal but none of it comes from Israel all of it is imported. As far as natural gas goes unless Israel starts using a lot less their reserves could run out in about 16 years because they consume about 0.7Bcf of natural gas. For electricity Israel generates 28 billion kilowatts per hour which isn't too high compared to the US or Singapore. Its total capacity it about 6.4 gigawatts (40% coal-fired, 34% oil-fired, 27% as-fired). The percentages are the only that I have been able to find for any breakdown of all the countries.

The only reserves that Israel has that have been proven are oil and natural gas. It is an extremely low number 4.0 million barrels for oil. For natural gas it is 11 million Bcf which isn't too bad. It seems that Israelis are going to have to rely on those who have oil to continue with the rate of consumption. It like the US must do business with the many Muslim countries, even though they are all Israel's sworn enemies. The US has compromised in order to survive so must Israel.

Sources:
World Book Encyclopedia volume I
www.eia.doe.gov.
www.israel.org
www.cnn.com
www.latimes.com

 


 Japan

Japan has a population of about 125. 7 million. The country has very minimal indigenous energy resources so they are forced to import most of their energy needs. Even though the country does not have many natural resources, it is still the worlds second largest energy consumer. Japan consumed about 21.3745 quads (quadrillion Btu) of energy in 1996. This is about (1.7*10^-7) quads per person. Japan only produced a total of 4.057 quads in 1996. These numbers show how dependent Japan is on imports.
Japan imports substantial amounts of crude oil, natural gas, and other energy resources. In 1996 the country's dependence on imports for primary energy was more than 81%. Oil made up 56% of Japan's energy use. Coal provided 14%, nuclear power provided 14 %, natural gas provided 12%, hydroelectric power provided 3.8%, and geothermal, solar, and wind power sources only counted for .3% of Japans energy use.
Japan has about 60 million barrels of proven oil reserves. This is very small compared to Japan's consumption of about 5.9 million barrels per day. Japan has about 1.4 trillion cubic feet(Tcf) in proven natural gas reserves. There are more reserves possibly hidden under the seabed surrounding Japan. There are about 905 million short tons of coal reserves in Japan. About 40% of Japans coal imports are coking coal. There is a small amount of anthracite coal imported also.
Japan generated 945 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity on 205 gigawatts of capacity in 1996. Of Japans total generation , about 61% came from thermal plants, 30% from nuclear reactors, and 9% from hydroelectric stations. Japans nuclear output almost doubled between 1985 and 1996 as Japan tried to move away from dependence on oil. However during the last few years public opposition to nuclear power has increased. This opposition is due to a series of accidents at Japanese nuclear plants. Because of this problem, Japan has cut back on its future plans to increase nuclear power from about 42% to 35%.

Energy Information Administration, http://www.eia.doe.gov/
Annual Energy review and the international energy annual, http://www.eia.doe.gov/bookshelf.html


 Mexico

In 1997, the population of Mexico was 94.2 million. Mexico is a member of NAFTA and OECD, and is a major non-OPEC oil producer. Oil is by far Mexico's greatest energy source, and it provides 40% of the government revenue. Pennex, Mexico's leading oil company, is the sixth largest oil company in the world, and is the most important entity in the Mexican economy. After Venezuela, Mexico has the second largest oil reserves in the Western Hemisphere, approximately 40 billion barrels. In 1997, 3.44 million barrels of oil per day (bbl/d) were produced, 3 million of which was crude oil. There are three grades of crude oil produced in Mexico: heavy Maya-22 which accounts for more than half of the total production, light, low-sulfur Isthmus-34, which accounts for about 28% of the total production, and extra-light Olmeca-39, which accounts for about 1/5 of the total crude oil production. 75% of Mexico's crude oil comes from offshore sites in the Campeche Sound of the Gulf of Mexico. There are 15 billion barrels of proven crude oil reserves here. The average consumption rate of oil in Mexico is about 1.9 million bbl/d.
Natural gas is another important energy source in Mexico. In fact there is an expected 10% increase in the use of natural gas between the years of 1996-2000. In 1997, 1 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of natural gas was produced in Mexico, and 1 Tcf was consumed. By 2006, it is expected that the consumption rate will increase to 2.5 Tcf. There is a proven natural gas reserve of 63.9 Tcf. Up until now, there has been a major constraint of development of natural gas, due to a lack of investing pipeline infrastructure for transporting the gas. In the future, however, natural gas will play an important role as new power plants are built, for these new power plants, and a significant portion of Mexico's thermoelectric plants will begin to use natural gas. It is expected in the next decade that the demand for natural gas will double, and that half of the consumed natural gas will be used for electricity.
Coal only contributes to 4% of Mexico's total energy use. This is mainly because the coal is low quality due to the high ash content. The majority of the country's coal reserves, which equals 1.3 billion short tons, is in Coahuila.
In 1997, Mexico's power output increased by 6.5%. Mexico generated 154 gigawatthours (Gwh)of electricity from 36 gigawatts (Gw) of electric generating capacity in 1996. 70% of the country's electric capacity consists of thermal power plants, 25% of hydroelectric plants, 4% from the country's one nuclear plant, and 2% from geothermal and other sources.
Although Mexico does not know very much about their renewable energy capacity, it is believed that they have a very large potential in using soar power, wind power, and hydroelectric power. A special commission was created in 1989 to study these renewable sources, and research is being done constantly to learn to make the most of these sources.

Sources: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/mexico.html

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Mexico:

The recent population estimate is of 86,154,000 people. The rate of population growth is of 2% to 2.99%, at this rate, the population increases every 24-34 years. The major sources of energy are natural gas, petroleum and coal. Mexico is in the major international Natural Gas Reserves list, as of 1995 Mexico was estimated to obtain 68 tcf, (trillion cubic feet) of its natural gas. Mexico is also in the top list of major oil producing countries. The number of producing wells is of 4,740 and its proved reserves are of 51,983x 106 barrels of oil. Mexico produces 2,618x1e3 barrels per day. There is a vast number of animal labor that accounts for use of energies. Mexico is rich in renewable energy, there is 18,200 gigawatts hours of Hydroelectric energy. 4,418 gigawatts hours of geothermal energy, .1 gigawatt hours of wind energy. And .7 gigawatt of solar energy.

Lean, Geoffrey The Atlas of the Environment. Prentice Hall Press., 1990 New York.

Ristinen, Robert A. Energy and the Environment, John Wiley &Sons, Inc., New York,
1999.
Benson, Nettle The Atlas of Mexico, Bureav of Business Research, Austin, 1975.

 


 New Zealand

New Zealand is a small island nation located southeast of Australia with a population of just 3.6 million. This APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) member consumes about 0.8811 Quadrillion Btu of energy annually. The per capita energy use of New Zealanders is about 245 million Btu, which signals the high level of development in the country. This figure blows away the 12 and 6.1 respective per capita energy rates (in million Btu's) of India and Nigeria.
The main energy source of New Zealand is surprisingly hydroelectric energy. Over 32% of New Zealand's energy consumption is derived from hydroelectric sources. I guess this figure shouldn't be too surprising since New Zealand is an island nation. Most of the hydroelectric energy is converted into electricity for industrial and commercial use. The nation consumes 133.63 million barrels of oil per day. Most of the oil that is consumed is imported from foreign nations. The annual consumption of natural gas is 189.39 billion cubic feet, all of which is produced domestically. New Zealand consumes about 3.976 million short tons (Mmst) of coal annually. Most of this coal is used to derive electricity, of which 33.047 billion kilowatt hours are generated annually.
New Zealand doesn't have much proven reserves of fossil fuels. The 145 million barrels of oil, 2.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 0.1 billion short tons of coal that New Zealand has in proven reserves will soon be exhausted at current production rates. In the coming years, New Zealand will become increasingly dependent on hydroelectric energy and on the importation of fossil fuels. The good news for New Zealand is that hydroelectric energy is renewable and will become cheaper and more efficient in the future.

SOURCES

1. The October 1998 report of the United States Energy Information
Administration. All the data is from 1995 or 1996.
2. Oil and Gas Journal 12/29/97
3. U.S. Bureau of the Census October 1998

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New Zealand

Population: New Zealand is located in near Australia in the Pacific Ocean. The 1998 population estimate of New Zealand is 3.5 million people. New Zealand uses 1.75 QBtu of energy each year, with each person using only .5 million Btu per year.

Energy usage/production: New Zealand's total production of oil is 71.40 thousand barrels per day (bbl/d) with an annual production of .151 QBtu. It's usage of oil is 133.6 bbl/d, or .240 QBtu. New Zealand produces and consumes 0.1966 QBtu of natural gas each year (data 1996). New Zealand produces 0.0942 QBtu of coal every year, with 89.3% of the total amount (not derived energy) coming from bituminous coal, 4.51% from anthracite, and 6.23% from liginite. New Zealand also produces .2796 QBtu of Hydroelectric power per year, with a total electrical power production of 35.534 billion kWh, or 1.213 QBtu.

Bib:
www.eia.doe.gov

Ristinen, Robert A., Jack J Karaushaar, Energy and the Environment, Wiley, New York, 1999.

Links:
New Zealand


Nicaragua

Nicaragua is located in Central America. It is the largest republic in Central America but it only has a population of 4.5 million. Central American countries contain about 0.02% of the world's proven reserves of crude oil, negligible natural gas reserves, and no coal reserves. Nicaragua produced .0138 quads(quadrillion Btu) of energy in 1995. The country consumed .0512 quads of energy in 1995. This is a per capita energy use of (1.14*10-8) quads per person.
Nicaragua produces no oil. They have to import all of there oil resources. Nicaragua consumes 17,480 barrels of oil per day. Nicaragua also produces no natural gas, nuclear energy, or coal. . There are no oil, gas, coal, or petroleum reserves in Nicaragua. Nicaragua consumes 73% petroleum energy and 8 % hydroelectric energy. There rest of their energy consumption is made up of other energy uses such as solar and other alternative energy uses.
Nicaragua has installed a geothermal power capacity of 70 Mega Watts. Also a $550 million, 440 mile gas pipe line is going to be installed that will connect Nicaragua and other Central American countries to Mexico. When this pipe line is installed, Nicaragua will substitute natural gas for old fashioned fuels like diesel and wood. There is a high electricity demand in Nicaragua right now. The demand is expected to grow quickly (6.1% annually over the next 20 years). Nicaragua will require large amounts of investment in new power plants. Nicaragua's demand for energy will continue to grow as the country becomes more industrialized. I believe that more investment in energy uses will be present in the future.

Annual Energy review and the international energy annual, http://www.eia.doe.gov/bookshelf.html

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Nicaragua

Nicaragua is one of the countries that makes up Central America. Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama are the other six countries. The population is 2,823,979. Nicaragua uses a significantly low amount of energy, as do all of the countries in Central America. In 1996, Central America consumed .6 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of energy. This is approximately .2% of the world's total energy use. Central America generated 7.1 million metric tons of energy related carbon emission, which is approximately 1% of the world's total.
Oil is the dominant fuel in Central America. It amounted to 70% of the total energy consumption in 1996, which accounts for .3% of the world's total energy consumption. Coming in second for Central America's energy use, at 24.2% is hydroelectricity. Other renewables accounted for 5.2% of the total energy use, and coal accounted for .3%. As of 1996, there has been no natural gas or nuclear consumption in Central America.
Central America contains about .02% of the world's proven reserves of crude oil, and accounts for about .2% of the world's crude oil refining capacity and .2% of the world's electric generating capacity.
Hydroelectric and other renewables, such as geothermal energy, solar power, wind, and biofuel are important sources of energy for Central America, for they account for 29% of the regional energy consumption. Nicaragua recently installed a geothermal power capacity of 70 megawatts. There is currently a project occurring in Nicaragua, which is the first renewable energy Independent Power Project (IPP), and first geothermal IPP in Central America. It will further develop Nicaragua's significant geothermal energy potential, which is estimated at 500MW.
Plans for a natural gas pipeline are also being proposed to run from Ciudad Pemex in Mexico's Tabasco state to the countries of Central America. This will include 440 miles of pipeline and cost about $500 million, and will extend into Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, and Costa Rica.
In 1996-1998, a project was extended to Nicaragua focusing on widespread installation of solar domestic hot water systems and large solar hot water systems. This project was proposed and aided by Swiss contact.
In 1995, the total energy consumed in Nicaragua was .1512 Quads, while the total energy produced was .0138 Quads. 17.48 thousand bbl/d of oil were consumed and 1.515 billion kwh of electricity were generated.

Sources
1. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/centam.html
2. http://www.energyhouse.com/eco/projects/nic.html

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Nicaragua:

In Nicaragua, it is estimated that the population is of about 3,384,000 people. It is also estimated that the population rate is of 3.0% to 3.99% and this doubles every 18 to 23 years. In Nicaragua, there is only renewable energy that is available for use. This energy is the Hydroelectric Energy. It is estimated that the renewable energy generated
is 268 gigawatt hours. Nicaragua has no source of Nuclear Energy.Nicaragua has no nuclear capacity. There is only one oil refinery in Nicaragua. Hydroelectric plant contributes to low electricity output. There is only 18.3% oil, and electrical gas which is 2.5%.The main domestic resource in Nicaragua is petroleum. Petroleum reserves are about 100 tons.

Sources Used:
Kennedy, Denis The Atlas of Central America and the Caribean , Macmillan
Publishing Company, 1985 New York.
Lean, Geoffrey The Atlas of the Environment, Prentice Hall Press., 1990 New York.
Kurian, George T., The Atlas of the Third World, Christos Moschovitis & Associates, inc., 1992 New York.


Nigeria

Nigeria is a large African nation with a population of 125 million. Nigeria consumes about 0.78 Quadrillion Btu of energy per year. This equates to a per capita energy use of just 6.1 million Btu, an amount which is dwarfed by the 345.9 annual per capita energy use of the United States. Nigeria's low energy consumption is explained by the extreme civil and political unrest, rising income inequality, and widespread poverty that are present in the country.
The main energy source for Nigeria is oil. Nigeria is recognized as one of the world leaders in crude oil production and exportation. The people of Nigeria consume 295,000 barrels of oil per day. The country's annual natural gas consumption is 186 billion cubic feet, all of which is produced domestically. Natural gas is mainly consumed by companies for power generation. The annual electricity consumption of Nigeria is 12.7 billion kilowatt hours. Due to the extreme poverty gripping the nation, only 30% of the country's people have access to electricity. Only a meager 0.12 million short tons of coal (Mmst) are consumed annually in the country, and most of the coal consumed is used as an energy source for electricity.
The fuel that Nigeria has in greatest abundance is natural gas. The country has 104.7 trillion cubic feet of proven natural gas reserves, which is the tenth largest reserve in the world. The government is trying to utilize these reserves by making the extraction process more efficient and by developing a widespread pipeline system. Nigeria's proven reserves of oil stand at 15.5 billion barrels. By agreeing with an OPEC policy and slashing its oil production by 10% last July, Nigeria added several years to its oil producing lifetime- which should come to an end in about 20 to 30 years. Nigeria's coal mines still have sizeable reserves, but coal has been produced inefficiently in Nigeria for several years.

SOURCES

1. The July 14, 1998 report of the United States Energy Information
Administration. All of the data is from 1996.
2. U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy's International
section's 1997 Nigeria report.

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Nigeria

Nigeria is a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and is one of the world's leading oil exporters with an average of 595,000 barrels per day. Nigeria has a population of 125 million people and a GDP of $35.3 billion, with the revenues from oil exports being a major contributor. Of these 125 million people, only 30% currently have access to electricity, although plans are being made to increase this to 85% by the year 2010 by constructing fourteen new power plants and nine thousand additional miles of transmission lines.
Estimates of Nigeria's oil reserves range from 16 to 22 billion barrels, all of which are found along the Niger River Delta in some 250 fields. Crude oil production capacity is 2.4 million bbl/d, the actual oil production is 2.207 million bbl/d. Total consumption is 295,000 bbl/d of oil, a per capita of .00236 bbl/d. The crude oil refining capacity is 433,250 bbl/d, 1.8 million bbl/d of oil are exported.
Nigeria has the tenth largest proven reserves of natural gas with 104.7 trillion cubic feet (tcf), production is 186 bcf and consumption is also 186 bcf. Nigeria's electric generation capacity is 5.9 gigawatts. The total electric generation is 13.8 billion kilowatt hours (kWh) with a total consumption of 12.7 billion kWh and a per capita of 101.6 kWh.
The total energy consumption is .78 quadrillion BTU and the consumption per capita is 6.5 MBTU compared to 345.9 MBTU consumed in the United States.


Saudi Arabia

A recent Saudi Arabia population estimate in 1996 was 18.84 million and the annual total energy use was 4.0 quadrillionBtu. Thus, the per capita energy use is 212,314,225.1 Btu/person. Saudi Arabia, along with Canada, was 2 of the world's 5 largest producers of energy in 1996.
Saudi Arabia is the world's largest oil producer, with one quarter of the world's proven oil reserves. This is an important source of crude oil imports for the United States, supplying 1.4 million barrels/day; almost 16% of U.S. crude oil. Saudi Arabia contains 261.5 billion barrels of proven oil reserves (more than ¼ of world total) and up to 1 trillion barrels of recoverable oil. Saudi Arabia is the world's largest oil producer, exporter, and holder of spare oil production capacity. Saudi Arabia oil production in to date is 8.8 million barrels per day, of which 8.1 million bbl/d is crude oil. The crude oil refining capacity is 1.685 million bbl/d. Saudi Arabia has an oil consumption rate of 1.2million bbl/d and the net oil exports is 7.6 million bbl/d. Saudi Arabia exports more petroleum than any other country. In 1996, the automotive fuel premium gasoline in Saudi Arabia cost 0.61 U.S. dollars/gallon and diesel fuel cost 0.37 U.S dollars/gallon. Saudi Arabia, the U.S., and Russia were the 3 largest producers of petroleum in 1996; together they produced 33.4% of the world's petroleum. Saudi Arabia's economy is essentially oil-based. In 1998, almost 90% of Saudi Arabia's export revenues came from the sale of crude oil, natural gas liquids, and refined products. It is estimated that Saudi Arabia loses around $2.5 billion for every $1/barrel drop in the oil price.
Saudi Arabia's proven natural gas reserves are estimated at 204.5 trillion cubic feet which ranks fifth in the world. Around 2/3 of Saudi Arabia's currently proven reserves consist of associated gas from the onshore Ghawer field and the offshore Safaniya and Zuluf fields. The Ghawer field accounts for 1/3 of the country's total gas reserves. The natural gas production/consumption rate in 1997 was 1.5 Tcf. Saudi Arabia's domestic gas demand is expected to grow as much as 8% per year thought 2007. Using gas instead of oil will help to free up more crude oil for export. Saudi Arabia is in the process of developing new technologies, including the Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquids process to convert gas into middle distillates like diesel, jet fuel, gas oil, and kerosene.
Saudi Arabia's fast growing population increases the demand on electric utilities by 5%-7% annually. Industry and Electricity Minister Hashim Yamani estimates that Saudi Arabia needs to install 2,000 megawatts (MW) of new capacity each year through 2020. Saudi Arabia's electric generating capacity is 21 gigawatts and has a net electricity generation of 100 billion kilowatt-hours. In 1995, Saudi Arabia's net electricity generation by thermal electricity was 93.8 billion kilowatthrs.

References-
International Energy Annual
Washington, D.C.:U.S.Dept of Energy, Energy Information Administration
International petroleum encyclopedia
Tulsa, Okla.,PennWell;1968-

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Saudi Arabia

With one-quarter of the world's proven oil reserves, Saudi Arabia is expected to retain its rank as the world's largest oil producer for the foreseeable future. It is an important source of crude oil imports for the United States and other countries. Saudi Arabia contains 261.5 billion barrels of proven oil reserves (more than one-fourth of the world total) and up to I trillion barrels of ultimately recoverable oil. Saudi Arabia is the world's leading oil producer, exporter, and holder of spare oil production capacity.

Although Saudi Arabia has about 77 oil and gas fields, over half of its oil reserves are contained in only 8 fields. Saudi Arabia has fewer than 1,430 wells, which is extremely low relative to the volume of oil the country produces. Saudi Arabia produces a range of crude oils, from heavy to super light. The lightest grades are produced onshore, while the medium and heavy grades come mainly from offshore.

Saudi Arabia's proven gas reserves are estimated at 204.5 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), ranking fifth in the world (after Russia, Iran, Qatar, and the UAE). Most (around 2/3) of Saudi Arabia's currently proven gas reserves consist of associated gas. Most new associated gas reserves discovered in the 1990s have been in fields which contain light crude oil, With domestic gas demand expected to grow as much as 8% per year through 2007, increasing gas production is a priority for the Saudi government. Additional gas production is being encouraged as a feedstock for the country's growing petrochemical industry, as well as for electricity generation, desalination plants and other industrial establishments, and as a replacement for direct oil burning. Using gas instead of oil domestically will help free up additional crude oil for export.

Saudi Arabia's relatively affluent and rapidly growing population of 19.8 million is increasing demand on electric utilities. Overall, Saudi power demand is growing by around 5%-7% annually. Meanwhile, new industrial projects have been delayed and brownouts have occurred due to inadequate power supplies. Saudi Arabia's Consultative Council reportedly has begun pushing for a radical solution to the country's power supply challenges. Privatization of Saudi Arabia's electricity sector is under consideration, as is a division into three parts -- generation, transmission, and distribution. Recently, Saudi Arabia began discussions with Egypt on developing renewable power sources such as solar and wind.

ENERGY OVERVIEW'
Total Energy Consumption (1996E): 4.0 quadrillion Btu
Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (1996E): 69.8 million metric tons (1.2% of world
carbon emissions)
Proven Oil Reserves (1/l/99): 261.5 billion barrels (includes half of Neutral Zone -- NZ)
OR Production (1998E): 8.8 million barrels per day (bbl/d), of which 8.1 million bbl/d is
crude oil (excludes NZ)
OPEC Crude 00 Production Quota (2H1 998 and I H 1999) : 8.023 million bbl/d (excludes
NZ)
OR Consumption (I 997E): 1.2 million bbl/d
Crude Oil Refining Capacity (1/l/99E): 1.685 million bblld
Net OR Exports (I 998E): 7.6 million bbl/d (excludes NZ)
Natural Gas Reserves (1/l/99), 204.5 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) (includes half of NZ)
Natural Gas Production/Consumption (I 997E): 1. 5 Tcf
Electric Generating Capacity (1/l/97): 21 gigawatts
Net Electricity Generation (1 997E): 100 billion kilowatt-hours

Online. Netscape. http://www.eventsworldwide.com/c-saudiarabia.htm

Online. Netscape- http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/saudi.html


Singapore

Located in Southeast Asia with a population of 3.5 million, Singapore is a major
center for trade and plays a vital role in the Asian economy. Singapore has seen a recent
decrease in demand for oil, due to the current Asian economic crisis, causing their refining industry to run at only half of their 1.25 million barrels per day capacity. The profits margins from 1998 are the lowest they have been in more than ten years.
The total consumption of oil in Singapore for 1998 was 550,000 barrels per day
with a crude oil refining capacity of 1.25 million bbl/d. Natural Gas consumption for 1997 was 53 billion cubic feet (Bcf), a per capita of 15,143 Bcf. The coal consumption for 1996 was 52,000 short tons. In 1996 Singapore's total electricity generation was 21 billion kilowatt hours with a total consumption of 19.5 billion kilowatt hours, a per capita consumption of 5,571 kilowatt hours.
The total energy consumption in 1996 was 1.2 quadrillion Btu, a per capita consumption of 401.3 million Btu, compared to 354 million Btu in the United States.

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Singapore is located on the coast of Malaysia, not too far from Indonesia.

Although Singapore does not have a land area that is too vast (one mainland and fifty-four islets) its population is extremely high. It is estimated to have 2,919,000 people, which makes it one of the most densely populated countries. There are quite a few people in Singapore which constitutes a lot of energy use. The total energy consumption for Singapore is 1.2 quadrillion Btu and the energy consumption per
capita is 401/3 million Btu. The latter of the two figures is extremely, this is true because the U.S. is only 354.0 million Btu.

Singapore unfortunately has very little natural resources for energy. The country must rely on imports. Even though Singapore has little to no natural resources it is still one of the largest petroleum refiners in the world. It has a crude oil refining capacity 125 million bbl/day. Singapore's main source of energy is oil, 550,000 bbl/day. It has no coal of its own, but it still uses a fair amount, which is all imported, 52,000 short tons. The capacity, generation, and consumption for energy all differ depending on what the country has, can make, and use. For Singapore the energy capacity is very high it is 5.3 gigawatts; compared to the generation of electric energy which is 21 billion-kilowatt hours. What Singapore actually uses doesn't differ too much form the generation, the use is 19.5 billion kilowatt hours. Singapore imports all of its natural gas so the import and consumption numbers are the same, 53 Bcf.

Singapore has to import just about everything it uses as energy. Although it does export a significant amount of oil, 1.09 million bbl/day, none of the original comes from Singapore. One interesting thing that Singapore is doing is getting into petrochemicals, which is a synthetic gas that can be used for feedstock and industry/ A lot of industries will soon follow this lead to petrochemicals.
emicals.

Sources:
World Book Encyclopedia volume S
www.eia.doe.gov
www.usatoday.com
straitstimes.asial.com
www.board.com

 


South Africa

The Republic of South Africa has a surface area of 1,127,200 km^2 with a total population of 43 million. The country has a large and dynamic energy economy, with high energy intensity. Industrial development and the commissioning of two large coal-based liquid fuel plants in the early eighties led to rapid increase in primary energy intensity. Primary energy and electricity increased by an average of 3.7% and 3.9% respectively per annum during the previous decade. A breakdown of primary energy utilization in South Africa follows: Coal (71%); crude oil (15%); renewable (10%); nuclear power (1.5%); natural gas(1.5%) hydro-electric power (<1%).

Coal is the cornerstone of the energy economy. There are, eighteen principal coal fields in South Africa and these reserves are the fifth largest in the world. Local production is used for electricity generation, conversion to liquid fuels and for export. Coal is also needed in the metallurgical industry and for the production of coal gas and the generation of steam.

The electricity system has grown rapidly during the last few decades. The national electric power utility owns 20 power stations with a net maximum capacity of 36,563 MW at the end of 1996. South Africa produces more than 50% of the total electricity generated on the African continent.

South Africa has a high solar radiation intensity of 5500 watt hours per square meter per day, and a large number of sunny days per year. The potential for developing solar energy is high. However, the relatively low cost of electricity makes it difficult to justify the large-scale use of solar energy.

The potential for using wind energy varies form region to region with coastal areas showing the greatest potential. Wind energy is generally used in rural areas for lifting groundwater.

The developing rural population is generally dependent on firewood for energy needs. However, shortages, hardship and ecological damage are experienced in certain areas. Rural electrification is rigorously pursued in many areas, but because of the low power density, the costs are high and cannot be afforded by a large component of the population. Some renewable energy technologies are expected to contribute towards reducing the problem. The greatest energy challenge facing South Africa is to ensure that adequate and affordable energy is available at all times to all of its people.

Online. Netscape. http://mbendi.co.za/cysaen.gif


Link to table 1.1 (html)

Link to table 1.1 (txt)