From: Faculty Advisor Handbook, Bucknell University, August, 2008, pp. 31-35
Policy and Definition:
Bucknell Students are responsible to the academic community for the preparation
and presentation of work representing their own individual efforts. Acceptance
of this responsibility is essential to the educational process and must
be considered as an expression of mutual trust, the foundation upon which
creative scholarship rests. Students are directed to use great care when
preparing all written work and to acknowledge fully the source of all ideas
and language other than their own.
Solitary and Cooperative Learning:
Learning may be accomplished in a number of ways, including study alone
or as a result of discussion with peers. While each approach to learning--be
it solitary or cooperative--may produce some benefits, each is not always
appropriate. Some instructors may suggest or require collaboration in meeting
the objectives of certain assignments or projects; similarly, some instructors
may provide for peer critique and assessment. When students study or work
together, acknowledgement of fellow students as sources of ideas or language
in the presentation of assigned work is required. On the other hand, other
instructors may feel that the objectives of a course and/or an assignment
require the understanding and integration of material which is best pursued
in a solitary way. Some instructors may object to collaboration or cooperation
in any form.
The instructor for each course will select the mode of learning to be followed
in that course, or in a particular assignment, and will expect students
to follow such prescriptions carefully. If an instructor does not explain
his or her expectations for individual assignments and for the class as
a whole, students have the responsibility to seek the necessary clarification
from the instructor. In the absence of an explanation to the contrary.
it is to be assumed that students will work alone.
In the case of writing assignments, students are encouraged to use the Writing Center unless otherwise directed by the instrctor.
Appropriate Practices in Cooperative Learning:
As noted previously, the academic community assumes that each student will
be responsible for his or her own work. When the primary mode of learning
is solitary, there are usually few problems and students are expected to
cite all sources from which they received information and ideas. However,
peer editing or criticism, group discussion, and common projects present
complications which make it more difficult to acknowledge sources of ideas
and words. The University requires each student to follow vigorously the
practices listed below:
1. Any quotation or paraphrase of material from printed, computerized, or
other sources will be acknowledged in the form appropriate to the field.
Students should request models of correct style and documentation from their
2. Work written or programmed in common should be acknowledged as follows:
(a) One person prepares the final form, giving appropriate credit to his
or her partners; they review and initial the
(b) Several students write the paper or program together; all sign it, giving
sectional credit if appropriate.
3. The student writing an individual paper or program which has benefited
from peer discussion or critique, in or out of class, will acknowledge such
aid in an appended paragraph. The more exact the crediting can be, the better.
This term is used to designate a wide range of academic conduct which violates
trust, honor, and integrity. It includes cheating, fabrication, plagiarism,
misuse of computing facilities, and general misconduct which precludes one's
work or that of another from being judged fairly.
Cheating--to deceive by presenting material on an exam or assignment as
known when it is not known.
To copy from another student during an exam, on homework, lab or computer
assignment. To allow another student to copy from you on an exam, homework,
lab or computer assignment. To use any illegitimate source of information,
notes or formula sheets during an exam.
To have someone take a test for you or to take a test for someone else.
Fabrication--to deceive by falsifying information or inventing data.
To invent or falsify research data.
To use data in a laboratory report or paper collected by other students
on problems similar or identical to one's own.
To cite information or material from sources not used.
To cite books, periodicals and other sources in a bibliography which were
Plagiarism--is the act of using another person's ideas or expressions
in your writing without acknowledging the source. It" is to give the
impression that you have written or thought something that you have in fact
borrowed from another." (See the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research
Papers. Theses. and Dissertations [New York: Modern Language Association,
1988], p. 21.)
To use a specific idea, detail, illustration drawn from a particular source
without reference in a footnote and bibliography.
To use general background for an assignment from a book, article, or other
source which is not acknowledged.
To submit another student's paper, project, or homework as one's own.
To paraphrase without footnotes.
To use even a brief phrase exactly quoted from a source without putting
it in quotation marks or indenting it, and citing it.
To use material from residence or fraternity files and turn it in as one's
It is clear that some students who are found guilty of plagiarism simply
do not understand what information must be cited. It is important that in
rewriting you demonstrate your own synthesis of ideas and fully credit your
original source. Paraphrasing causes students the most difficulty. When
you change words in a sentence, but the idea remains the same, you must
cite your source.
Academic Misconduct--behavior which precludes one's work or that
of another from being judged fairly.
To take an exam in one section of a course and then to discuss the nature
and content of that exam with students who have yet to take the exam.
To submit the same assignment to fulfill requirements in two course without
the written permission of both instructors.
To help with or edit another student's assignment, (including papers, projects,
computer program, homework, etc.) in ways that go beyond the instructor's
expectations or beyond the student's statement of sources.
To collaborate with another student in the planning or writing of a theme,
project or computer program without the knowledge and permission of the
To steal and use or give away an unadministered exam.
To steal an administered exam so that the grades cannot be recorded.
To alter or change a grade either before or after it has been recorded.
Misuse of Computing Facilities--"violations of authorial integrity,
including plagiarism, invasion of privacy, unauthorized access, trade secret,
and copyright violations (Educom/ADAPSO code)
To read or copy computer files or programs without the owner's explicit
permission and with or without the owner's knowledge to submit this work
as one's own.
To use another person's computer logic.
As a student what can vou do to ayoid difficulties?
1. Always save your work to your private space on the Bucknell Network or to your hard drive, never to your public space. Anyone can access work that is on your public space and misappropriate it without your knowledge.
2. Understand and follow the appropriate practices in cooperative learning.
Know what your professor expects in regard to working with other students
on class material and homework assignments. Do not share your work with
3. If you have any question about the need for an appropriateness of a citation,
consult your professor or recognized handbook.
4. Realize that within each discipline there maybe a specific approach to
the citation of sources. Seek the advice of your professor.
Board of Review on Academic Responsibility
The University makes a distinction between acts of academic irresponsibility
and other conduct which may subject an individual to disciplinary action.
To avoid confrontation between a student and professor, encourage consistency
of recommended penalties, and protect the rights of individuals, charges
of academic irresponsibility are handled by the Board of Reyiew on Academic
The Board of Review on Academic Responsibility is made of six students and
six faculty members and is served by the registrar as a permanent non-voting
secretary. The six student members of the Board are selected from the students
already serving on the Community Judicial Board; students will be chosen
in consultation with the Associate Dean of Students. The names of the six
faculty members (male and female) are prepared by the Academic Dean's Offices
(Arts and Sciences and Engineering) and submitted to the University Council
for approval; members of the BSG who swerve on the University Council should
represent the interests of the BSG in the approval process; the six faculty
members serve staggered three year terns. A faculty member who has been
of the board for at least one year normally serves as chair of the Board
Each case of alleged academic irresponsibility is heard by a five-member
panel (three faculty members, two student) of the Board of Review on Academic
Responsibility; every effort is made to secure gender representation on
each Board panel. Upon receiving a case, the Associate Dean will ask the
Registrar to schedule a meeting of a Board panel. A faculty member who has
been on the Board for at least one year normally serves as chair of the
An Associate Dean in each college has been designated to handle all matters
relating to academic irresponsibility. At the request of the Associate Dean,
the Registrar will call a meeting of the Board. In the event that the Board
cannot meet between semesters the student may request that an academic dean
other than the one handling the matter hear the case rather than delay the
decision until the Board can meet.
Procedures to be followed in all suspected cases of academic irresponsibility:
1. Members of the faculty are expected to report possible acts of academic
irresponsibility to the Associate Dean of the college in which the student
is enrolled. However, before doing so the faculty member should gather all
necessary information and evidence regarding this situation. The faculty
member may speak directly with the student involved to resolve any questions
or discrepancies but may not decide that the student is guilty and impose
a penalty. The Associate Dean is available to discuss the matter with the
faculty member before the official charge is made.
[Students who witness possible acts of academic irresponsibility by another
student(s) are expected to report this to the faculty member who will then
investigate. In some circumstances, it may be more appropriate for the student
to report to the chair of the department.]
2. When all the necessary information has been obtained, the faculty member
will provide the Associate Dean with a written statement of possible charges
and all appropriate evidence.
3. The Associate Dean will meet with the student charged and explain the
allegation, the evidence, and the procedures that will be followed. [At
all times the student charged may be accompanied to meetings or hearings
by a friend or adviser from the University community, but the adviser may
not address the Board or question
4. Following the meeting, the student will write a short statement indicating
the sequence of events that occurred before, during and after the alleged
act of irresponsibility The Associate Dean will write a summary of the meeting
with the student and will deliver a packet containing that summary, the
student's statement, the faculty statement and all evidence to the Registrar.
The Registrar will call a meeting of a panel of the Board of Review on Academic
Responsibility. Other than the temporary assignment of an administrative
incomplete in a course, the official status of the student in the University
will remain unchanged pending disposition of the charges. However, in the
case of a graduating senior where the matter cannot be resolved in time,
graduation might, if necessary, be deferred.
5. The Board panel will meet with the Associate Dean and the student
and on the basis of evidence and any other information it may wish to solicit,
determine whether a violation has occurred. The Board panel will transmit
its decision and recommendation for penalty to the Associate Dean who will
initiate action on behalf of the University. In the event that a Board panel
cannot meet between semesters the student may request that an academic dean
other than the one handling the matter, handle the case rather than delay
the decision until the Board panel can meet.
6. The student may appeal the decision to the Dean of the College. To do
so the student should present a written statement explaining the reason
for the appeal and any evidence not available at the time of the hearing.
An a appeal must be made within a month of the decision.
7. Materials related to the case are kept in confidential files separate
from the student's academic record in the Registrar's Office.
It should be noted that conversations between the Associate Dean and the
faculty member, the Associate Dean and the student, and all meetings with
a panel of the Board of Review on Academic Responsibility shall be considered
confidential. Once a case is decided, all parties are charged not to reveal
the name of the student, or associate the student with a specific case,
or the outcome. A general summary of offenses and penalties may be published
in the student newspaper. For educational purposes, case studies (without
names) may be used.
Range of Penalties
The panel of the Board of Review on Academic Responsibility, in reviewing
the case, may select from the following list or recommend the penalty which
it believes appropriate to the particular case under consideration. It is
generally assumed, however, that repeated offenses will incur increasingly
a. The rewriting of the assignment or examination with or without the resulting
grade being lowered by one or more levels
b. The grade of "F" on the assignment
c. A grade of one or more levels below the actual grade earned in the course.
d. A grade of "F" for the course
e. Disciplinary dismissal from the University for at least one semester
at the end of the semester in which the offense has occurred
f. The immediate disciplinary dismissal from the University for the remainder
of the current and following semester
g. Permanent dismissal from the University.
(It should be noted that penalty grades, or the result of penalties, determined
by the panel of the Board of Review will be reflected on the student's academic
record and may not be changed by requests to drop the course or to withdraw