politics '08
Foun 099 - 55
Course Specifics

You ask, you learn, You live, you learn - Alanis Morsettte, You Learn. @ 1995 MCA Music Pub/Vanhurst Place Music/BMI
From: Faculty Advisor Handbook, Bucknell University, August, 1996, pp. 6-9


and Definition:

Bucknell Students are responsible to the academic community for the preparation and presentation of work representing their own individual efforts. Acceptance of this responsibility is essential to the educational process and must be considered as an expression of mutual trust, the foundation upon which creative scholarship rests. Students are directed to use great care when preparing all written work and to acknowledge fully the source of all ideas and language other than their own.

Solitary and Cooperative Learning:

Learning may be accomplished in a number of ways, including study alone or as a result of discussion with peers. While each approach to learning--be it solitary or cooperative--may produce some benefits, each is not always appropriate. Some instructors may suggest or require collaboration in meeting the objectives of certain assignments or projects; similarly, some instructors may provide for peer critique and assessment. When students study or work together, acknowledgement of fellow students as sources of ideas or language in the presentation of assigned work is required. On the other hand, other instructors may feel that the objectives of a course and/or an assignment require the understanding and integration of material which is best pursued in a solitary way. Some instructors may object to collaboration or cooperation in any form.

The instructor for each course will select the mode of learning to be followed in that course, or in a particular assignment, and will expect students to follow such prescriptions carefully. If an instructor does not explain his or her expectations for individual assignments and for the class as a whole, students have the responsibility to seek the necessary clarification from the instructor. In the absence of an explanation to the contrary. it is to be assumed that students will work alone.

Appropriate Practices in Cooperative Learning:

As noted previously, the academic community assumes that each student will be responsible for his or her own work. When the primary mode of learning is solitary, there are usually few problems and students are expected to cite all sources from which they received information and ideas. However, peer editing or criticism, group discussion, and common projects present complications which make it more difficult to acknowledge sources of ideas and words. The University requires each student to follow vigorously the practices listed below:

1. Any quotation or paraphrase of material from printed, computerized, or other sources will be acknowledged in the form appropriate to the field. Students should request models of correct style and documentation from their instructors.

2. Work written or programmed in common should be acknowledged as follows:

(a) One person prepares the final form, giving appropriate credit to his or her partners; they review and initial the


(b) Several students write the paper or program together; all sign it, giving sectional credit if appropriate.

3. The student writing an individual paper or program which has benefited from peer discussion or critique, in or out of class, will acknowledge such aid in an appended paragraph. The more exact the crediting can be, the better.

Academic irresponsibility:

This term is used to designate a wide range of academic conduct which violates trust, honor, and integrity. It includes cheating, fabrication, plagiarism, misuse of computing facilities, and general misconduct which precludes one's work or that of another from being judged fairly.

Cheating--to deceive by presenting material on an exam or assignment as known when it is not known.


To copy from another student during an exam, on homework, lab or computer assignment. To allow another student to copy from you on an exam, homework, lab or computer assignment. To use any illegitimate source of information, notes or formula sheets during an exam.

To have someone take a test for you or to take a test for someone else.

Fabrication--to deceive by falsifying information or inventing data.


To invent or falsify research data.

To use data in a laboratory report or paper collected by other students on problems similar or identical to one's own.

To cite information or material from sources not used.

To cite books, periodicals and other sources in a bibliography which were not used.

Plagiarism--is the act of using another person's ideas or expressions in your writing without acknowledging the source. It" is to give the impression that you have written or thought something that you have in fact borrowed from another." (See the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. Theses. and Dissertations [New York: Modern Language Association, 1988], p. 21.)


To use a specific idea, detail, illustration drawn from a particular source without reference in a footnote and bibliography.

To use general background for an assignment from a book, article, or other source which is not acknowledged.

To submit another student's paper, project, or homework as one's own.

To paraphrase without footnotes.

To use even a brief phrase exactly quoted from a source without putting it in quotation marks or indenting it, and citing it.

To use material from residence or fraternity files and turn it in as one's own work.

It is clear that some students who are found guilty of plagiarism simply do not understand what information must be cited. It is important that in rewriting you demonstrate your own synthesis of ideas and fully credit your original source. Paraphrasing causes students the most difficulty. When you change words in a sentence, but the idea remains the same, you must cite your source.

Academic Misconduct--behavior which precludes one's work or that of another from being judged fairly.


To take an exam in one section of a course and then to discuss the nature and content of that exam with students who have yet to take the exam.

To submit the same assignment to fulfill requirements in two course without the written permission of both instructors.

To help with or edit another student's assignment, (including papers, projects, computer program, homework, etc.) in ways that go beyond the instructor's expectations or beyond the student's statement of sources.

To collaborate with another student in the planning or writing of a theme, project or computer program without the knowledge and permission of the instructor.

To steal and use or give away an unadministered exam.

To steal an administered exam so that the grades cannot be recorded.

To alter or change a grade either before or after it has been recorded.

Misuse of Computing Facilities--"violations of authorial integrity, including plagiarism, invasion of privacy, unauthorized access, trade secret, and copyright violations (Educom/ADAPSO code)


To read or copy computer files or programs without the owner's explicit permission and with or without the owner's knowledge to submit this work as one's own.

To use another person's computer logic.

As a student what can vou do to ayoid difficulties?

1. Understand and follow the appropriate practices in cooperative learning. Know what your professor expects in regard to working with other students on class material and homework assignments. Do not share your work with others.

2. If you have any question about the need for an appropriateness of a citation, consult your professor or recognized handbook.

3. Realize that within each discipline there maybe a specific approach to the citation of sources. Seek the advice of your professor.

Board of Review on Academic Responsibility

The University makes a distinction between acts of academic irresponsibility and other conduct which may subject an individual to disciplinary action. To avoid confrontation between a student and professor, encourage consistency of recommended penalties, and protect the rights of individuals, charges of academic irresponsibility are handled by the Board of Reyiew on Academic Responsibility.

The Board of Review on Academic Responsibility is made of six students and six faculty members and is served by the registrar as a permanent non-voting secretary. The six student members of the Board are selected from the students already serving on the Community Judicial Board; students will be chosen in consultation with the Associate Dean of Students. The names of the six faculty members (male and female) are prepared by the Academic Dean's Offices (Arts and Sciences and Engineering) and submitted to the University Council for approval; members of the BSG who swerve on the University Council should represent the interests of the BSG in the approval process; the six faculty members serve staggered three year terns. A faculty member who has been of the board for at least one year normally serves as chair of the Board panel.

Each case of alleged academic irresponsibility is heard by a five-member panel (three faculty members, two student) of the Board of Review on Academic Responsibility; every effort is made to secure gender representation on each Board panel. Upon receiving a case, the Associate Dean will ask the Registrar to schedule a meeting of a Board panel. A faculty member who has been on the Board for at least one year normally serves as chair of the Board panel.

An Associate Dean in each college has been designated to handle all matters relating to academic irresponsibility. At the request of the Associate Dean, the Registrar will call a meeting of the Board. In the event that the Board cannot meet between semesters the student may request that an academic dean other than the one handling the matter hear the case rather than delay the decision until the Board can meet.

Procedures to be followed in all suspected cases of academic irresponsibility:

1. Members of the faculty are expected to report possible acts of academic irresponsibility to the Associate Dean of the college in which the student is enrolled. However, before doing so the faculty member should gather all necessary information and evidence regarding this situation. The faculty member may speak directly with the student involved to resolve any questions or discrepancies but may not decide that the student is guilty and impose a penalty. The Associate Dean is available to discuss the matter with the faculty member before the official charge is made.

[Students who witness possible acts of academic irresponsibility by another student(s) are expected to report this to the faculty member who will then investigate. In some circumstances, it may be more appropriate for the student to report to the chair of the department.]

2. When all the necessary information has been obtained, the faculty member will provide the Associate Dean with a written statement of possible charges and all appropriate evidence.

3. The Associate Dean will meet with the student charged and explain the allegation, the evidence, and the procedures that will be followed. [At all times the student charged may be accompanied to meetings or hearings by a friend or adviser from the University community, but the adviser may not address the Board or question

4. Following the meeting, the student will write a short statement indicating the sequence of events that occurred before, during and after the alleged act of irresponsibility The Associate Dean will write a summary of the meeting with the student and will deliver a packet containing that summary, the student's statement, the faculty statement and all evidence to the Registrar. The Registrar will call a meeting of a panel of the Board of Review on Academic Responsibility. Other than the temporary assignment of an administrative incomplete in a course, the official status of the student in the University will remain unchanged pending disposition of the charges. However, in the case of a graduating senior where the matter cannot be resolved in time, graduation might, if necessary, be deferred.

5. The Board panel will meet with the Associate Dean and the student and on the basis of evidence and any other information it may wish to solicit, determine whether a violation has occurred. The Board panel will transmit its decision and recommendation for penalty to the Associate Dean who will initiate action on behalf of the University. In the event that a Board panel cannot meet between semesters the student may request that an academic dean other than the one handling the matter, handle the case rather than delay the decision until the Board panel can meet.

6. The student may appeal the decision to the Dean of the College. To do so the student should present a written statement explaining the reason for the appeal and any evidence not available at the time of the hearing. An a appeal must be made within a month of the decision.

7. Materials related to the case are kept in confidential files separate from the student's academic record in the Registrar's Office.

It should be noted that conversations between the Associate Dean and the faculty member, the Associate Dean and the student, and all meetings with a panel of the Board of Review on Academic Responsibility shall be considered confidential. Once a case is decided, all parties are charged not to reveal the name of the student, or associate the student with a specific case, or the outcome. A general summary of offenses and penalties may be published in the student newspaper. For educational purposes, case studies (without names) may be used.

Range of Penalties

The panel of the Board of Review on Academic Responsibility, in reviewing the case, may select from the following list or recommend the penalty which it believes appropriate to the particular case under consideration. It is generally assumed, however, that repeated offenses will incur increasingly severe penalties.

a. The rewriting of the assignment or examination with or without the resulting grade being lowered by one or more levels

b. The grade of "F" on the assignment

c. A grade of one or more levels below the actual grade earned in the course.

d. A grade of "F" for the course

e. Disciplinary dismissal from the University for at least one semester at the end of the semester in which the offense has occurred

f. The immediate disciplinary dismissal from the University for the remainder of the current and following semester

g. Permanent dismissal from the University.

(It should be noted that penalty grades, or the result of penalties, determined by the panel of the Board of Review will be reflected on the student's academic record and may not be changed by requests to drop the course or to withdraw