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“Underbounding” excludes minority populations from enfranchisement
"Hidden Spatial Inequality" Cedar Grove Institute for Sustainable Communities 2009   

Discriminatory annexation in Moore County, North Carolina: majority-Black neighborhoods are systematically excluded from expanding golf-resort municipalities when sprawling municipalities annex right up to -- but not into -- unincorporated majority-Black communities. Municipal infrastructure, such as sewer service, is withheld from those neighborhoods. This map was used by the New York Times in 2006 for a front-page story. (See NYT article.)
Boundaries, demography from US Census 2000, sewer lines from Moore county, NC, database.