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Excluded minority communities lack basic urban services
"Hidden Spatial Inequality" Cedar Grove Institute for Sustainable Communities 2009

Political exclusion and withholding of infrastructure in Modesto, CA: densely settled, predominately Latino neighborhoods are politically excluded from Modesto, and are not provided with sanitary sewer service lines. (See a map of Modesto's underbounding) They also lack streetlights, sidewalks, city police coverage, and storm drainage. (See the effect on the ground of underbounding in Modesto.)
Municipal boundaries and sewer lines from Stanislaus County (CA) GIS; imagery from USGS.

modesto_sewers