Presented at Haverford College, 8 pm, April 23, 1998 Will the Twenty-First Century Need Universities? Robert Beard Bucknell University
- Introduction: What Revolution?
Looking around Haverford today, life seems to have changed little over the past 5 years. Could a genuine revolution be running its course through Haverford, a revolution not only in the way we store, retrieve and publish information, but in the means by which we shop, pay taxes, bank, operate our businesses, interact with government and each other, entertain ourselves, teach and learn? Even if this be so, would such a revolution be of any consequence, or would it simply be the latest blip of the industrial revolution, not much influencing the way we think or our personal and social relationships--the important things of life? Is it not perhaps simply the latest phase of the industrial revolution?
It is true that a wide array of time-consuming practical and intellectual activities will be taken over by networked computers in the new millennium, providing vastly expanded informational resources upon which to base all our decisions. More knowledge will be available to more people than ever before in history. This will materially narrow the divides between the governors and the governed, between intellectual and non-intellectual, between teacher and student, adult and child. All of these dichotomies depend upon striking differences in the quantity and quality of knowledge, and knowledge, if we heed Carl Friedrich, forms the basis of genuine authority. We are therefore facing a social revolution, a challenge to legitimate authority at all levels that will shape much of the character of the next century. Since the educational enterprise is based principally on the authority of knowledge, the technological revolution driving these social changes deserves our full attention.
Three decades ago Marshall McLuhan (1964) explored the evidence of human irrepressibility. McLuhan argued that we humans cannot endure the containment of the flesh, and that is why we invented automobiles--then airplanes--to extend our feet, telephones to extend our ears, and television to extend our eyes. The computer now extends the most characteristically human of all the animate modalities, the mind. It provides the mind with perfect, limitless memory, perfect recollection of unlimited sounds and images arranged in whatever fashion we can conjure or invent, it can respond to sophisticated questions, evaluate answers, gather information on its own and distribute it very extensively, quickly, and inexpensively. The computer can run machines and conduct business. Now that we have networked all our mental extensions in one cybernetic system, we have in fact converted the world into an encyclopedia even beyond Tesla’s dreams. The world has in fact become an enormous and yet-growing encyclopedia of itself. Millions of people are archiving enormous amounts of information on every topic from the personality of the webmaster to the top secrets of the tobacco industry.
This encyclopedia has deployed itself with unprecedented swiftness. The first web browser appeared only in 1993--anyone remember Mosaic 1.0? In January 1993, there were approximately 1,313,000 host domains operating on the Internet worldwide. By 1996 that number had jumped to 9,472,000, and in January of this year (1998) the number was 29,670,000. The number is now doubling about every two years. According to a Harris poll conducted in November 1996, 35 million people in the US were using the Internet at least intermittently. IntelliQuest, a leader in providing information-based marketing services to the technology industry, estimates that 62 million US citizens, 32% of the population, accessed the Internet in February of this year (1998), with another 7 million planning to go on-line in March. Approximately 117,750,000 people currently use Internet services worldwide.
The Web is also fast becoming the world's largest venue of commerce. The most recent technology forecast by Price Waterhouse recently projected trading in goods and services online will increase to $434 billion by the year 2002. Business to business web commerce doubled every six months from 1996 to 1997; this year it is doubling every three to four months. Consumer purchases are expected to increase by 1800 percent from 1997 to 2002, from 5 billion to 94 billion dollars. GM recently announced an enormous project to install an international web system from which it expects to sell 10% of its automobiles by the year 2002. Right now you can now examine, purchase and finance automobiles on the internet; you can purchase wines, and if I get my order in by 11 PM, I can have virtually any piece of hardware or software delivered to my home in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania by 10 am the following morning. You can shop in the supermarket on the Internet; you can take courses on the Internet for college credit; you can pay your taxes by the Internet; you can buy and sell stocks and maintain your portfolio on the Internet. Of course, you can send letters with color graphics, motion pictures and sound on the Internet and find libraries of books, which may be searched, for any word or phrase in seconds.
The latest versions of the web browsers are, in fact, Internet browsers for they are capable of accessing everything on the Internet: formatted e-mail, voice mail, FTP and gopher sites, usenets, and telephonic communications including teleconferencing. Microsoft wants to build all of this into its operating system, obliterating the line between our personal computers and the world network. Web TV promises to integrate television with the web and bring that integration to anyone with $200 in good credit. Not only has communication become faster and simpler, we now have access to amounts of information greater than ever before at a moment in human history when we are already overwhelmed by information. However, for the first time in our history, we also have the instrument for managing all the information we need or want.
Because this is not a political or military revolution but a revolution in social intercourse, it will be possible to ignore it for a few years, even resist it. Led by David Noble, the faculty of York University in Toronto went on strike in the spring of 1997 until it was contractually assured that the university would not require classroom technology. At UCLA, on the other hand, the Division of Letters and Science launched its Instructional Enhancement Initiative in the fall of 1997. This initiative mandates that every course at UCLA must have a website with at minimum course outlines and assignments. These two experiences illustrate the current schizophrenia in the attitude of educators to the new technology. Is this technology the beginning of Arthur Clarke’s HAL, in 2001: A Space Odyssey; does it represent a threat to us, a potential replacement all that is human in the classroom? Or is it simply the most powerful mental assistant ever brought to the classroom?
We must also understand that this revolution is not only proceeding at an unprecedented tempo, but that it is much more pertinent to our enterprise than any previous such upheaval. The world has become an enormous encyclopedia of itself with tens of millions of people explaining themselves and what they see around them in words, pictures, and sounds directly to each other. The Web is more an educational tool than a tool for business, though it will no doubt be used more aggressively for the latter. This Internet and the Web represents a revolution in the management of information and knowledge, which are the heart of our enterprise. We are the specialists in gathering, sorting, organizing, conveying, and archiving information. Indeed, the computer is an extension of the human mind, the cultivation of which is our very mission. We must be involved with its development and cultivation. To do that, we must understand how the thing works, how it is like us and how not, without relying on the romantic homilies that have comforted us in the past.
To the extent the inhabitants of cyberspace accumulate as much information as we do, and interpret it at least as well, universities may well lose their relevance in the early moments of the third millennium. If we too long ignore the opportunities of the Internet, we may well find ourselves supplanted by it, as Peter Drucker recently predicted in an interview that appeared in Forbes Magazine. There are already hundreds of US corporations with their own universities, teaching their employees skills that they failed to master in high school and college—how to read, write, and think. Now, the largest state universities are moving hand-in-hand with the corporate world to develop libraries of distance-learning courses to be administered over the Web. The new partnership between business and universities may represent good or evil, depending on your presumption of the educational mission, but for sure it represents wrenching change wrought by rapid technological innovation.
2. Changes in the Academy
Educational institutions will be changed by networked computers in the way they administer themselves, the way they teach, and the way they conduct and publish research. Catalogs, course guides, course schedules, and syllabuses will all be on line and linked to each other. The distinction between these university publications will eventually vanish. Opening the university on-line catalog you will be able to bring up the course syllabus, the instructor's homepage with his qualifications, schedule and e-mail address. The reading list will be linked to on-line reserved readings, authors’ homepages, and all the on-line reviews and responses to the readings.
Much if not all of the materials for the course will be built into the on-line interactive electronic syllabus: the readings, animated graphics, videos and sound bites—eventually, entire videos, interactive exercises in which students cause things to happen and see the possible results. Courses will be enormously richer as a result. My course on Russian civilization is linked to the best of every other course on Russian civilization throughout the world and theirs will eventually be linked to mine. There are links to all the major Russian art museums and concert halls, magazines, newspapers and, eventually, even the homepages of the world's most recognized experts in every area of Russian civilization will be part of the syllabus. My course will ultimately benefit from the materials of all the teachers and writers on the subject matter on earth who wish to share their thoughts. These are not minor improvements of current practices; these are the parts and pieces of a major jar to the way we do things.
On-line interactive syllabuses will contain color graphics and photographs, motion pictures, and sounds of various sorts. Background music, entire symphonies, foreign language conversations, animal calls, interviews--all will be part and parcel of the syllabus. The syllabus will hold the course together. Students will use it 24-hours a day, 7 days a week; professors will project it onto a flat screen behind him or her in the classroom so that the maps and illustrations studied by students at home will be identical to those used in class. Lecture notes and examples will also be projected in class rather than scribbled on blackboards. The blackboard, or better, smartboard, will be reserved for the occasional addendum that occurs to the instructor during the course of a lecture. The smartboard will automatically save these addenda as part of the lecture notes to be projected the next time the lecture is read. . Listen closely to what I am saying.
Satan himself could not have devised a more diabolical way of conveying information than a highly educated adult reading a specialized lecture to a classroom of uninitiated teenagers taking notes. But that method could be eradicated next semester if technology were the only problem. On-line, projected lecture notes will dramatically reduce note-taking in class, and the time wasted writing examples or outlines on the board or while students copy them down. Misunderstandings arising from note-taking will be obviated. When we catch up with the technology, all that time spent copying to and from the blackboard will be reconverted to the original activity of academy--human colloquy between experts and novices that guide the novices toward a capacity to use the opulent endowment of information we now have in critical analysis and thinking.
If the line between administration and teaching will erode, the line between teacher and student will erode even more. Tapscott (1977) argues persuasively that the "Net Generation" will have the same profound economic, social, and political effect on the 21st century that the baby boomers had on the latter half of the 20th century. It will take its toll on education once again, too. Young people already learn much of what they know about the world from motion pictures, television, radio, and interaction with peers and adults outside the academy. We really don’t know to what extent the university’s importance has been dimmed by other such sources of knowledge, we only know that it occurs. We need to know more about other sources of knowledge that compete with the educational system. Traditionally, universities have survived by providing knowledge not available on television or radio, learning not encouraged in the media. The new worldwide encyclopedia will change that. Out-of-work PhDs, bored emeriti, and enthusiastic specialists who learn from experience will be providing massive amounts of in-depth information on all topics, even electronic colloquy via e-mail, for free. Students will arrive at the university knowing more than ever and even more about how to find knowledge and information quickly and reliably. Will $100,000 per person remain a reasonable sum for what we have to offer? Is there genuine justification for precisely fours years of residence?
3. The Academic Response: Large Schools and Small
Two questions bearing on universities and the academics who manage them are quickly rise to mind. First, how will these changes affect the academy, its mission and conduct? Second, how should universities and colleges react to these changes? I think that the Internet revolution offers a wide range of hazards for educators who prefer technology-free colloquy and opportunities for educational entrepreneurs who will take advantage of it. The question is whether the entrepreneurs will remain on campus or take their expertise and educational skills the new commerce that is currently attracting so many of our students. Commercial, on-line universities are already forming. What impact will this new form of competition have on universities?
At this point it would seem likely that the impact of the world encyclopedia will be different for large universities than for small ones. Let’s examine the nature of large and small universities separately and see if we can determine the probable impact of the new technology on them.
3.1 Large State Universities and Community Colleges
State universities and city and community colleges share in common large numbers of non-resident students, a growing number of part-time and adjunct teachers, career-oriented student bodies, and a general disdain for teaching and teachers (see the special Carnegie reports, Boyer 1990, Glassick et al. 1997). The growing predilection for adjuncts is itself a concession that practical experience can substitute for education in a teacher and the increase in part-time instructors, indeed, the very use of teaching assistants, is a concession that the teacher less important that most of us would prefer to believe. State universities, in addition, are saddled with many courses with enrollments in the hundreds, where the student has little or no contact with the instructor and is lucky to have a graduate assistant to converse with about the subject matter. All these conditions make them very vulnerable to virtual universities and distance learning.
This vulnerability accounts for the enthusiasm with which these universities are developing distance-learning resources. The Western Governors University, the University of California's two rapidly expanding distance learning divisions, the University of Phoenix, the University of Arizona, University of Colorado are just a few such institutions leading the way in developing off-campus, distance-learning courses that take advantage of the Internet. The Western Governors University is a virtual on-line university supported by the state governments and universities of the western states (excluding California).
The goals and visions of the western governors’ alliance include "shifting the focus of education to the actual competence of students and away from ‘seat time’ or other measures of instructional activity" and "creating high performance standards that are widely-accepted [sic] and serve to improve the quality of postsecondary education." The virtual university will be blatantly "market-oriented".
"More broadly, the governors want to better link educational and business opportunities by ensuring that state investments in and use of information technology contribute to a technology-rich environment within which private industry can function and on which it can depend. Specifically, they feel that higher education has the potential to serve as an ‘anchor tenant’ to spur the development of information technology networks within and among states of the West."
This paragraph makes clear the desire of the western governors to remake the fact of education in a specific direction: to satisfy the needs of commerce. The governors seem to want bring higher education in line with the guiding principles of primary and secondary education in the past, where the basic lessons were to show up on time, do what you are told and not complain, qualities demanded by the industrial revolution (Illich 1971). To accomplish this, the governors apparently want to change the state-supported institutions in the western states or they intend to erect a new system of education to compete with the current system. Either way they are blending two ideas which are not necessarily compatible: developing a virtual university to attend the needs of first-time and continuing education, and responding to the specific needs of commerce rather than to the general needs of society.
It might seem implausible for state governments to support two competing types of educational systems, but the western governors are quite clear on the matter. The Western Governors University will be
- focused on developing markets for certified graduates and a wide variety of instructional materials;
- not controlled by those who represent established interests with regard to either the delivery of education or its certification; client-centered;
- focusing on needs of students and employers rather than instructional providers, e.g., flexible and responsive in instructional delivery rather than constrained by the fixed schedules and sequential structures typical of current educational delivery;
The UCLA "Instructional Enhancement Initiative" is unrelated to THEN, "The Home Education Network", a private corporation with an "exclusive contract with the UC Regents to form a strategic partnership with UCLA Extension." THEN’s CEO is a former vice chancellor of university relations, John Kobara, who redesigned UCLA’s website (5 million hits per month) during his tenure. THEN represents two trends brought about by the sudden growth of the Internet: corporations see "knowledge resources" as a reliable source of profit and universities are the primary source of knowledge resources. Of course, THEN and its investors, who include St. Paul Venture Capital, Times Mirror Corporation and Sylvan Learning Systems, are interested only in courses required for certification. According to its brochure "THEN offers courses specifically designed to meet the needs of working professionals who want to enhance their skills and/or meet certification requirements but find it increasingly difficult to fit continuing education into their busy lifestyles" (THEN website, "About THEN"). Currently, instructors of the UCLA Extension are providing the course material for THEN, assisted by "On-line Course Managers." However, eliminating one of these would increase profits.
In February 1998 the Berkman School for Internet and Society of the Harvard Law School recently offered its first, experimental on-line course, entitled "Privacy in Cyberspace" moderated by Arthur Miller. 1100 participants were accepted. It is not uncommon for on-line courses to accommodate up to 500 students, a number comparable to the number enrolled in traditional large courses in the research institutions. However, the overhead is much less, assuming the Web facilities are in place for other reasons. The opportunity for profit is thus quite great for universities and private corporations; however, while the Berkman School does seek corporate sponsors, its experiment demonstrates the greater drawing power, and hence profitability and profile, of a genuine authority. The Berkman School seems content to keep the profile and profitability for itself.
Finally, Marvin D. Loflin, dean of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences on the Denver campus, plans to hire non-professorial "teaching associates" who sign over rights of authorship of their distance-learning courses to the University of Colorado as a condition of producing on-line courses. Loflin was recently quoted as saying, "I'm prepared to make over the whole infrastructure of higher education," to the Chronicle of Higher Education (March 27, 1998, p. A30).
What is more interesting is that the article that quoted Loflin reported a surprising trend: the majority of those currently taking advantage of distance-learning courses are students in residence. This confirms the assumption that students at state universities are interested in distance-learning but they might like residency for other reasons. I would like to return to this point and the implications it holds for all of us after discussing the impact of the Web on small residential universities and liberal arts colleges. The important point to keep in mind at this point is that several state universities are moving aggressively into the production of distance-learning course archives over which they share control with private companies but not with the authors.
The fact that private companies are being formed for the same purpose indicates the potential profit in distance learning. What is more, these forces see progress in education as wresting control of courses away from current vested interests, from those upon whom they depend for the very creation of the courses. Larger universities that attempt to compete with private companies should be able to do so effectively so long as they continue to hire genuine experts rather than adjuncts and part-time instructors to do the distance teaching. Large universities must understand the basis of their authority and not squander it in an attempt at effecting economies in the wrong sector of the budget.
3.2 Small Universities and Liberal Arts Colleges
The Internet offers a different set of opportunities and hazards for small colleges and universities like Bucknell and Haverford. We are defined more by high quality teaching, close teacher-student relationships, and the "collegiate" residential experience—extracurricular activities that complement academic studies—than are the larger research institutions. Research does not absorb as much of our time and this leaves more time to devote to teaching and advising. Unlike large institutions, it is commonplace for full professors with stellar publication records to teach undergraduate courses and advise undergraduates at smaller colleges and universities, and visiting and adjunct professors are laid on sparingly and only with cause. The residential experience accounts for much of the attractiveness of smaller institutions. Distance learning should not represent any serious threat or opportunity here (although see Skidmore’s University Without Walls project). However, we need to keep in mind the current experience that most of the distance-learning students are, in fact, in residence. The methods and flexibility of web-based courses are appealing and effective, and it is to our benefit to take advantage of that attraction rather than to cede it to corporate education.
Face-to-face learning with experienced, full-time PhDs is an important attraction at smaller universities. At Bucknell several departments in the natural sciences and psychology have established long-standing programs of faculty-undergraduate research, supported by outside research grants. This tradition has been so successful that Bucknell has extended the opportunity to other departments in the social sciences and to the humanities at its own expense. The faculty involved in these projects obviously spends a good deal of time with students outside classes and imparts to them more information than those who only attend classes. But we spend additional time with all our students while advising them, during frequent office hours, and at various extracurricular events. This robust direct connection with experienced, often published PhDs is certainly worth more than the passive faculty-undergraduate contact at the larger institutions mentioned in the various Carnegie reports. The question then becomes whether this personal concern on the part of instructors at small colleges and universities is worth $100,000 when compared with the new alternative. That alternative is interactive, on-line courses developed by master teachers like Arthur Miller, with e-mail, chat room, and telephone access to that instructor and a less educated but experienced "course manager". Such courses could profitably cost only a few hundred dollars and entail no room, board, or other overhead costs of residence.
Smaller universities offer more opportunity to participate in extracurricular activities such as intramural and intercollegiate athletics. They offer a multitude of fraternity, sorority, service club, and other activities that students feel contribute positive practical experience to their character. Many faculty members concede that many these activities affect positively areas of human growth and development not touched upon in the classroom. However, we must never lose sight of the fact that these activities are peripheral, found only in colleges and universities of the United States. We should satisfy ourselves that the motivation for these activities is sound and that they do benefit students. Here is why.
The importance of extracurricular activities on campus has increased in recent decades to the extent that they are referred to as "cocurricular" in some quarters of the academy without serious resistance from faculties. Intercollegiate athletic events are now scheduled throughout the week and faculties, by and large, simply cede without comment that participation in these games takes precedence over class attendance. If the position of face-to-face teaching at small institutions continues to erode in favor of extracurricular activities, the residential experience that attracts students to our portals may eventually reduce to those activities. Students will see no difference between the distance-learning courses of large universities and those in our classrooms; indeed, they may well prefer on-line courses for the technological advances they offer.
If the faculties of small institutions resist technological advances, they will face yet another threat. Over the next 2-3 years the first wave of what Tapscott (1997) calls the Net Generation will be arriving at our gates. These students will be not only computer-literate but computer-sophisticated. They may or may not know more than previous generations but they will know significantly more about how to find information quickly and reliably using their computers. They will begin arriving on campuses where only a minority of faculty will have commensurate ability. Current progress in alerting faculty to this possibility is slow, so that that there will inevitably be a period in which some students are more proficient at finding current information within a discipline than do most instructors in that discipline. If this does occur, it will weaken the position of the instructor even more, forcing us to rely even more on extracurricular activities as an attraction for new students.
What is to be done, as the Russians love to ask? It strikes me that small residential colleges should seriously consider two adjustments to their current way of doing things. First, they should follow UCLA’s lead in encouraging all members of the faculty to learn about the new world encyclopedia; how to access it, how to incorporate it in their courses, how to contribute to it. We should remember that it is also a powerful information delivery system with the power to remove much of the drudgery that causes teacher "burn-out" from the classroom (Beard 1997). We should be developing web-based courses with serious instructional content. We should be avidly exploring the new technologies for ways of regaining our authority and repositioning teaching as the central function of a residential college. Even though distance-learning will probably not play a major role in the development of smaller institutions, the courses in these institutions must compete with those on-line to prevent further trivialization of the classroom experience.
The second direction smaller institutions must undertake is to reassert the primacy of teaching. This involves reconvincing students that critical reading and thinking are relevant to their professional careers as well as their personal lives. We need to convince corporate American of this and the governors of the western states. We must first make sure that we are all teaching critical analysis and thinking in our classrooms. This will involve taking seriously the evaluation of teaching in terms of a viable mission which society at large understand better than it understands our current mission. It is not enough for small colleges and universities to survive, they must survive as educational institutions where the intellectual mission is central.
4. What Then is to be Done?
The question of whether universities will be necessary in the future has never been asked because it as never been a possible question before. Until the rise of the World Wide Web there was no alternative to university education. Now there is. As a result, educators are faced with a rich array of opportunities and hazards. The simple fact that it is now possible to ask the question mandates a discussion.
It is difficult to predict the future. The interpretations I have proposed in this paper are only possibilities, perhaps with a tinge of probability. However, there is a strong tendency for whatever is possible to occur. There is no driving reason for supersonic aircraft or drive-by shootings, but because they are possible, we have to adjust to them. To the extent this is the case, we are compelled to discuss the changes I have outlined in this paper because if they do emerge from the rapidly growing technology, we should be in a position to capitalize on them rather than watch them drag us away from our mission.
In the short run, the Web represents less a threat to small residential colleges than to the large research institutions where the quality of teaching has already eroded. In order for small universities to survive, they must survive as universities. The danger for small residential institutions is that the residential experience itself may rescue them rather than the intellectual experience of fact-to-face interaction with experienced academics. To assure that this does not occur, the faculties of these institutions are obliged to take advantage of the technology toward two ends. First, they must use this most powerful intellectual tool to free them from such classroom drudgery as writing to the blackboard, worrying about student note-taking, and shifting from one traditional technology to another, i.e. overhead, VCR, projector, tape recorder. The time saved by using a web-based course must then be converted to time spent in more meaningful face-to-face colloquy.
Second, the web-based courses used in small institutions must be as rich in resources and creatively contrived as the distance-learning courses with which they will inevitably compete. That is, courses in residence must reflect all the advantages of distance-learning courses plus direct access to a master teacher, inside the classroom and outside.
To assure that the nature of the in-class colloquy is relevant to the lives of our clients and that they know it, to repeat the words of many of our recent critics, we need a serious discussion of the purpose of a university education. We need to clarify our relationship to commerce, where the majority of our graduates work, and to society at large, which has changed radically since last we defined our enterprise and is changing even more radically right now. Commerce is not what it was in the 19th century or even what it was the first half of this century. The fulcrum of invention and creativity is shifting from universities to corporations, where work is less and less boring and stultifying and more and more creative, enriching, and exciting. Corporations are run with more intelligence (and information) than every before and they need intelligent, creative employees more than ever before. Universities can and should respond to that need. We do, however, still have the broader responsibility to prepare intelligent citizens who lead examined lives, who make informed choices and conduct themselves intelligently at all times.
Meeting this later responsibility has become all the more difficult with the intellectual and moral degeneration of television, motion pictures, and radio. The active media is an important source of knowledge for our students. We need how much information our students receive from these sources relative to how much they receive from us—and which they consider the more authoritative. It is clear that the media more and more advocate ignorance, superstition, and brutality alongside those values we try to instill. Our students spend four years with us; they spend a lifetime with the media. The media now is clearly our enemy and we may be losing the battle with it. The media alone may be our downfall. However, the Internet is our "equalizer", a powerful weapon against the decrepit values of the US media. All the more reason faculties should be moving swiftly and powerfully to deploy this weapon in our own defense.
To the extent the Web is an encyclopedia of the world, by the world, for the world, it offers the perfect springboard to recapture the minds of our clients and restore the eminence of the academic profession. Academics can provide general and specific information about the world for the Internet and manage that information better than any other social class. Indeed, academics will perform this function; the question is whether they will do it for academic institutions or for corporations that pay much more. Universities should be moving much more swiftly to establish information resources, e-journals, data bases, and the like before corporations do. Knowledge and information should not be a commodity bought and sold by commercial interests; it should be a freely available intellectual resource provided by and associated with universities.
If we attend the fundamental problems I have outlined here using this, the most powerful intellectual tool we have ever had at our disposal, the large research institutions will become smaller, more manageable enterprises. Smaller institutions will focus more intently on effective teaching, both in the technology we use and the way we address students in our classrooms. The line between training and education should become sharper as the western governors lead the former onto the Web, leaving educational institutions behind, and residential colleges regain control of their fundamental mission(s). It all depends on the decisions we make now and the aggressiveness with which we move to gain control of our share of the Web.
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