Symbols Used for Mechanical Problems

Please make your corrections on the original copy--no need to print out another version. Corrected material should be returned to me at the next class meeting.

agr = agreement (subject/verb or pronoun/antecedent)

apost = apostrophe (either omitted or used needlessly)

awk = awkwardly phrased (confusing to the reader)

cap = capitalization

case = pronoun form (often who vs. whom)

CS = comma splice (using a comma between independent clauses)

DM = dangling modifier (has no noun to modify)

frag = sentence fragment

hyphen = hyphen needed  (usually a compound modifier)

idiom = odd phrasing (try reading the phrase aloud)

l.c. = lower case (word usually not capitalized)

P = punctuation (could be a missing comma, or a needless one)

poss = possessive (it's instead of its, for example)

pv = point of view blurry (a matter of craft)

red = redundant

ref = unclear pronoun reference

rel pro = relative pronoun (use of who, whom, that, which)

repet = repetitious

RO = run-on sentence

S = sentence awkward (its meaning unclear or hard to follow)

sp = spelling

tense = verb tense (often a needless shift)

tr = transpose (often comma after quotation marks)

verb = faulty verb (as when lie and lay are confused)

W = wordy

WC = word choice

WW = wrong word (as in infer for imply)

x = typographical error

= start new paragraph here?

^ =   something has been left out (letter or word)

[    ]   =   you can probably do without these words

?   =   I don't follow your meaning or intention here

And, finally, a check mark in the margin indicates good work, bravo!